Exposure dating uses the concentration of exotic nuclides (e.g.Cl) produced by cosmic rays interacting with Earth materials as a proxy for the age at which a surface, such as an alluvial fan, was created.
The science of geochronology is the prime tool used in the discipline of chronostratigraphy, which attempts to derive absolute age dates for all fossil assemblages and determine the geologic history of the Earth and extraterrestrial bodies.
By measuring the amount of radioactive decay of a radioactive isotope with a known half-life, geologists can establish the absolute age of the parent material.
APWPs for different continents can be used as a reference for newly obtained poles for the rocks with unknown age.
For paleomagnetic dating it is suggested to use the APWP in order to date a pole obtained from rocks or sediments of unknown age by linking the paleopole to the nearest point on the APWP.
Burial dating uses the differential radioactive decay of 2 cosmogenic elements as a proxy for the age at which a sediment was screened by burial from further cosmic rays exposure.
Luminescence dating techniques observe 'light' emitted from materials such as quartz, diamond, feldspar, and calcite.
For example, the Cretaceous period, which lasted from 146 million years ago to 65 million years ago, was the final period of the dinosaurs.
Some rocks can be given a relative age by identifying the fossils they contain.
Many types of luminescence techniques are utilized in geology, including optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), cathodoluminescence (CL), and thermoluminescence (TL).
Thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence are used in archaeology to date 'fired' objects such as pottery or cooking stones, and can be used to observe sand migration.
Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.